Permanent Settlement System of Bengal - British Empire in India 1757-1857 for UPSC/IAS Lesson 4
The Permanent Settlement, also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal which was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land, with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the entire British Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside. It was concluded in 1793 by the Company administration headed by Charles, Earl Cornwallis, also known as Lord Cornwallis. It formed one part of a larger body of legislation enacted, known as the Cornwallis Code. The Cornwallis Code of 1793 divided the East India Company's service personnel into three branches: revenue, judicial, and commercial. Revenues were collected by Zamindars, native Indians who were treated as the landowners. This division created an Indian landed class that supported British authority. Permanent Settlement introduced first in Bengal and Bihar; and then to South district of Madras and district of Varanasi. The system eventually spread all over northern India by a series of regulations dated 1 May 1793. These regulations remained in place until the Charter Act of 1833. Must watch for all.
This course covers political, Constitutional, and administrative aspects of the British Empire in India during the mid 18th to the mid 19th century. Specifically, it talks about the governor general's from Warren Hastings to William Bentinck. Under these governor general, the major reforms undertaken are covered. These refer to the civil services, the police the army, the land reforms, the judicial reforms and the educational reforms.
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